To increase safety and reduce crime in the Netherlands, the Compulsory Identification Act came into force on 1 January 2005. Since that date, everyone age 14 years and older must be able to produce an original — not a copy — valid identity document and carry it with them at all times. Failure to produce a valid identity document is a criminal offence. U.S. citizens are required to carry a U.S. passport book or valid Dutch residence permit. The U.S. passport card is not acceptable to the Dutch as identification.